- Earth's average surface temperature is increasing by about 0.1 degrees
C/decade. Thus we need to wait many decades to get accurate measurements
of Earth's temperature.
- Meterological satellites in polar orbits are used to measure cloud
- AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) is also used to measure
cloud cover data (substracted from solar insolation).
- Instruments on Polar-orbiting meteorlogical satellites measure the
radiation parts of the heat budget.
- Latent-Heat Flux is influenced primarily by wind speed and relative
- High winds and dry air evaporate much more water than weak winds
with relative humidity near 100%.
- In Polar regions, evaporation from ice-covered oceans is much less
than from open water.
- In the Arctic, most of the heat lost from the sea is through leads
(ice-free areas). Hence the percent of open water is very important
for the arctic heat budget.
- Sensible-Heat Flux is influenced primarily by wind speed and air/sea
- High winds and large temperature differences cause high fluxes. Think
of this as a wind-chill factor for the oceans.
- Fluxes are calculated from the correlation of vertical wind and horizontal
wind, humidity, and the air temperature.