Survey of Oceanography
Review Material for Spring 2004
Here are questions I have asked in
- Global Warming, the Importance of the Problem: An important
question being widely debated these days is: Is the surface
of earth warming? There are lots of
weather stations on land reporting surface temperature,
but 70% of earth is covered by oceans.
- Roughly how much has the land or the ocean warmed
over the past century?
- What measurements have been used to determine if
the sea surface has been warming
over the last century? Please state what was measured, and who
- Do you trust the measurements? Please state your
reasons for trusting or not trusting
Warming, Cause and Effect: Why
do some scientists think that earth's
temperature will be
2°- 4° C warmer in a hundred years?
- Please state what might cause the increase.
- Please state how the cause will produce the effect
warming, the Role of the Ocean: How
is the ocean involved in global warming?
- What is the importance of deep circulation in the
ocean? There are at least two major
- How do oceanic processes influence earth's carbon
budget (the amount of CO2 in
- How do oceanic processes lead to a warm
Warming, Past History: What do
we know about earth's surface temperature over the past
- Please variable was measured to obtain information
- Please state how the measurement is related to
Warming, the Role of the Ocean:
The ocean involved in global warming.
- Why does Wally Broeker expect global warming might
push the world into the next ice
- In answering a) please explain what process(es) in
the ocean is involved, and
how warming will influence the process(es).
- What evidence do we have that Broecker is
warming, Policy: How will
governments solve the problem of global warming?
- Is there any international agreement on what to
do? What has been agreed?
- What measures might help reduce the buildup of CO2 in
- What are some important arguments against taking
steps to reduce CO2 emissions?
Warming, the Influence of
Currents: Ocean currents redistribute heat throughout the
- How are currents measured? Please list the
important ways we can
obtain global maps of currents.
- How do satellite altimeters produce maps of
currents? What do they
measure, and how is the measurement related to currents? What
type of currents
do they measure?
- El Niño: Why isEl Niñoimportant?
After all, is it just anchovies off Peru?
- Pretend your are writing a letter to
a friend. Explain in a few paragraphs
the cycle of events
in a typicalEl Niño.
- Now explain whyEl Niñois
important. Why might
your friend care
whether or notEl Niñowill
return next winter?
- El Niño:El Niñois
important because of the teleconnections.
- Why is weather in various parts
of the world related to events in
- What are a few of the important
The number of fish
in the ocean varies from region to region. The populations are not
- Where are fish most common?
- What biological factors influence the distribution
- What physical factors influence the distribution
of fish? Please
list the physical processes that influence the distribution,
and the why
processes are found in specific
experts state that
overfishing is an
of the "tragedy of the commons".
- What is meant by this phrase?
- How does it apply to fisheries?
- What can the state of Texas do to
mitigate the tragedy of the commons
for the shrimp
Coasts continually evolve.
- Please describe the seasonal cycle of coasts along
island or sandy coast such as Cape Cod.
- What are the dominant processes causing changes of
the physical structure of coasts?
- What is the dominant result of man-made structures
Fisheries are not uniformly distributed in the ocean. Some areas
more fish than others.
- In what geographic areas are fish common?
- How do winds influence local fisheries?
5 September, 2004