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Columbia University's Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center ( SEDAC, the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center, is one of the Distributed Active Archive Center (DAACs) in the Earth Observing System Dataand Information System (EOSDIS) of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. SEDAC's mission is to develop and operate applications that support the integration of socioeconomic and Earth science data and to serve as an "Information Gateway" between the Earth and social sciences.

Pew Oceans Commission ( -The Pew Oceans Commission is an independent group of American leaders conducting a national dialogue on the policies needed to restore and protect living marine resources in U.S. waters. After reviewing the best scientific information available and speaking with people from around the country, the Commission made its formal recommendations to Congress and the nation in June 2003.

Report on Marine Pollution in the United States ( Accomplishments, Future Challenges. Review a summary of the Pew Oceans Report on Marine Pollution: Despite 30 years of progress in reducing pollution from ocean dumping, waste treatment facilities, and toxics such as DDT, America's coastal waters remain in peril. A new report of the Pew Oceans Commission released today finds that polluted runoff from farms and cities - often far inland - went largely unabated or actually increased over the past 30 years, in many cases negating gains made in controlling direct sources of pollution.

Report on Coastal Sprawl: The Effects of Urban Design on Aquatic Ecosystems in the United States ( -According to popular wisdom,rapid population growth is the biggest threat to the coastal environment. It's a classic case of trying to put ten poundsof potatoes in a five pound sack. Or is it? At first glance, national statistics appear to confirm that perspective. Coastal countries cover 17 percent of the land area of the United States.

Report on Introduced Species in U.S. Coastal Waters ( Introduced species are a growing and imminent threat to living marine resources in the United States. Hundreds of species arrive in U.S. waters from overseas each day, playing a game of ecological roulette with ecosystem and economic stability. These species arrive by way of ships ballast water and hull fouling, by fisheries activities, and by other means.

Report on Marine Aquaculture in the United Sattes ( aquaculture production is growing rapidly, with production more than doubling in weight and by value from 1989 to 1998. With many capture fisheries catches peaking, scientists, governments, and international organizations all point to aquaculture as the most important means to increase global fish supplies.

United Nations Framework and and Kyoto Protocol ( -The Convention on Climate Change sets an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change.  It recognizes that the climate system is a shared resource whose stability can be affected by industrial and other emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases.

United Nations Conferences of the Parties on the Kyoto Protocol (

Revised on: 3 February, 2005