Coastal Erosion Policy Issues
People like to live close to the beach. Hundreds of thousands have bought
homes on barrier islands or sandy stretches of coast. Not surprisingly,
they hope to keep their property despite the relentless march of the
sea into the land.
When it comes to inhabiting the coast, there
is no philosophical middle ground. People adapt one of the two positions
exemplified by Mohn (a homeowner) and Pilkey (a scientist).: People
are at the coast to stay, and Nothing along the coast stays forever.
From Hiney (2004).
- Should we retreat as the sea advances, allowing nature to maintain
a balance? Until recently, few tried to hold back the sea.
- Or should we reinforce the coast and stop the erosion?
- In either case, who pays the cost of retreating or reinforcements.
Retreat or Reinforce the Coast?
Until recently, few tried to hold back the sea. Cities and towns were
located a few miles inland away from the advancing sea. The few structures
that were built at the beach tended to be simple, cheap, and easily abandoned.
Left: Simple beach house at Old Waikanae
Beach, Wellington, New Zealand, typical of beach houses built 50
years ago. From Bookabach.
Right: Beach houses in Shenzhen city,
China. From Steven's Personal Web
As more and more people flocked to the coast, they began building expensive
homes on dunes at the water's edge. Towns sprang up on barrier islands.
Beachfront lots and property became very expensive.
Suntide III Condominium on South Padre Island, Texas, typical of modern
beach construction. From SUNTIDE
Should land be zoned to forbid building close
to the water?
Keeping people from building close to the beach is now highly controversial.
Landowners have paid high prices for land in the expectation they could
develop the land and make a profit. Rezoning greatly reduces the value
of the land. But if zoning allows structures, they may be damaged by
Should we allow reinforcement of the coast despite
its long-term cost and environmental damage?
Americans in great numbers are heading to
beaches this summer to enjoy the sun, the surf, and the sand. But
when they arrive, many are asking a common question: Where's the
beach? Erosion, coastal over development, and misguided conservation
efforts are taking a heavy toll on the nation's shoreline. For generations,
the United States has been waging a multibillion-dollar war against
the forces of wind and tide. But the wind and the waves are winning.
The result: Coastal communities from Massachusetts to Texas to California
are facing a shortage of sand. Their beaches are literally washing
From Christian Science Monitor article At
Beaches, Sand Is Running Out, 8 July 1999.
Sea-walls and other structures can protect a coast for a limited time.
Eventually, sand is washed away from in front of the seawall, storm waves
reach the wall, and eventually the wall fails. To prevent this from happening,
sand must be periodically dumped on the beach at great cost. Eventually,
some agencies are opting to stop replenishment and allowing natural processes
to work. For example, in 2001 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers abandoned
a $52 Million project to add sand to the beach at Fire Island near New
Signaling a change in public policy for Long Island's
South Shore, the Army Corps of Engineers and New York State have agreed
to abandon a $52 million project to construct oceanfront dunes and
beaches along 11.3 miles of the most heavily developed areas of Fire
Island ... greater consideration will be given to what is known as
a nonstructural approach to shoreline management that emphasizes allowing
nature to take its course and seeking to keep development out of harm's
way. This approach is supported by state and national environmental
organizations and is apparently gaining currency among government agencies.
It would rule out so-called hardened structures like jetties and groins
and would also stop or sharply limit dumping sand to build up dunes
and widen beaches for storm protection.
Proponents of nonstructural methods say that
scientific evidence shows that dunes and beaches on barrier islands
like the 31-mile-long Fire Island will restore themselves naturally
if they are not impeded by oceanfront development or coastal engineering.
They envision buying up land to create a ''no development'' buffer
zone along the Atlantic.
From New York Times article Corps Drops Sand-Replenishment
Plan for Fire I, 15 April 2001.
Should we allow construction on coastal property
subject to erosion or damage by storm surges and tsunamis?
Remember the film Portrait of a Coast which began with footage
showing a New England city that had been damaged by storms many times
in the past century? The narrator stated that the cost of protection
exceeded the cost of the buildings being protected. Is this good policy?
Should areas damaged by the Indian Ocean tsunami be rebuilt? Or should
the areas be turned into parks such as the park in central Hilo Hawaii?
It was the 1960 tsunami that sparked legislation
to establish a greenbelt in the hardest hit area of Hilo to prevent
future losses of life and business. Dubbed Project Kaiko‘o (Rough
Seas), tax benefits were granted to businesses and individuals to relocate.
Part of the area was filled to a height of 30 feet, and when simulated
waves over models of the area illustrated that the waves would no longer
endanger that area, state buildings were erected there. Today, Wailoa
State Park on the bayside of the state buildings, is a lovely, serene
park with waterways shared by ducks and kayakers. Monuments have been
erected at Lapaho‘eho‘e and at Wailoa State Park that serve
as sad reminders of the 1946 and 1960 tsunamis.
The green areas in the center of this image of Hilo Hawaii, from the
Wailuku River at top left to the Wailoa River on the right and center,
were created after buildings in the area were destroyed by the 1946
and 1960 tsunamis.
From Google Maps.
Who owns beach sand?
Sand from rivers is essential for replenishing beaches. If the sand flow
to the sea is blocked by dams, and if the sand is mined for construction
projects, less sand is available for beaches. in essence, upstream
users are taking the sand, depriving downstream users (beach owners).
Should upstream users pay downstream users for the taking of sand?
- The individual property owner can assume liability. This is based
on the presumption that the purchaser of coastal property knows the
dangers, and therefore willingly accepts the liability by purchasing
the property. Many states require the seller of the properly to disclose
the dangers and liabilities.
- Prohibit coastal structures through local zoning, and government
ownership of land close to the beach. Many communities use zoning to
prohibit the construction of structures in locations likely to be flooded.
The concept can be extended to the coastal zone.
- Mandatory hazard insurance. The local and federal government requires
owners of structures in flood plains to obtain federal flood-plain
insurance. The concept could be expanded to the coastal zone. If an
area is repeatedly damaged, the insurer can take obtain ownership of
the property and not rebuild.
- The local or state government can assume liability. If coastal structures
are damaged, the government will pay for repairs and/or seawalls and
other structures necessary to protect the coastal structure. This has
been common practice in some but not all regions. After insurance companies
refused to insure Florida homes very likely to be damaged or destroyed
by hurricanes, the state of Florida started a government-owned insurance
program. Unfortunately, it does not have resources needed to repay
homeowners whose homes are damaged by a major hurricane. So the state
is asking the federal government to assume responsibility. In essence,
all citizens in the country are asked to pay for damage to homes built
in damage-prone areas of coastal Florida.
- Require those who restrict the flow of beach sand to reimburse down-beach
communities for the loss of sand. The California Coastal Commission
requires fees be paid to build seawalls that keep sand from reaching
southern California beaches. Read Report
on In-Lieu Fee Beach Sand Mitigation Program: San Diego County
Federal Response to Coastal Erosion Problems
- See US Department of Housing and Urban Development information on Special
Flood Hazard Areas and regulations on building in these areas.
- Executive Order 11988 -- "Floodplain Management" requires
Federal agencies and Responsible Entities "to avoid direct or
indirect support to floodplain development wherever there is a practicable
The term "floodplain" shall mean the lowland and
relatively flat areas adjoining inland and coastal waters including
flood prone areas of offshore islands, including at a minimum,
that area subject to a one percent or greater chance of flooding
in any given year.
From Executive Order 11988
- Federal Disaster Protection Act as amended authorized the "National
Flood Insurance Program" whose policy requires participating communities
when issuing building permits to discourage but allow floodplain development
on the condition that the construction be elevated and/or flood proofed
and that the property owner obtain flood insurance protection against
potential financial loss due to damage from flooding.
- "Executive Order 11990 - Protection of Wetlands" requires
Federal agencies and Responsible Entities to avoid undertaking or providing
financial assistance for new construction located within wetlands,
unless a finding is made that there is no practicable alternative to
such construction. Section 7 of the Executive Order defines the term "wetlands" to
mean "those areas that are inundated by surface or ground water
with a frequency sufficient to support and under normal circumstances
do or would support a prevalence of vegetative or aquatic life that
requires saturated or seasonally saturated soil conditions for growth
and reproduction. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs,
and similar areas such as sloughs, potholes, wet meadows, river overflows,
mud flats, and natural ponds." The Fish and Wildlife Service of
the Department of Interior also identifies most wetlands on the National
Wetlands Inventory maps.
- The Coastal Barrier
Resources Act (1999) discourages development on coastal barriers,
including barrier islands. It begins:
- FINDINGS. – The Congress finds that–
- Coastal barriers along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts
of the United States and the adjacent wetlands, marshes,
estuaries, inlets and near shore waters provide–
- habitats for migratory birds and other wildlife;
- habitats which are essential spawning, nursery,
nesting, and feeding areas for commercially
and recreationally important species of finfish
and shellfish, as well as other aquatic organisms
such as sea turtles;
- Coastal barriers contain resources of extraordinary
scenic, scientific, recreational, natural, historic,
archeological, cultural, and economic importance; which
are being irretrievably damaged and lost due to development
on, among, and adjacent to, such barriers;
- Coastal barriers serve as natural storm protective
buffers and are generally unsuitable for development
because they are vulnerable to hurricane and other storm
damage and because natural shoreline recession and the
movement of unstable sediments undermine manmade structures;
- Certain actions and programs of the Federal Government
have subsidized and permitted development on coastal
barriers and the result has been the loss of barrier
resources, threats to human life, health, and property,
and the expenditure of millions of tax dollars each year;
- A program of coordinated action by Federal, State,
and local governments is critical to the more appropriate
use and conservation of coastal barriers.
- PURPOSE. – The Congress declares that it is the purpose
of this Act to minimize the loss of human life, wasteful expenditure
of Federal revenues, and the damage to fish, wildlife, and other
natural resources associated with the coastal barriers along the
Atlantic and Gulf coasts by restricting future Federal expenditures
and financial assistance which have the effect of encouraging development
of coastal barriers, by establishing a Coastal Barrier Resources
System, and by considering the means and measures by which the
long-term conservation of these fish, wildlife, and other natural
resources may be achieved.
- The Insurance
Information Institute provides information of catastrophic insurance,
including flooding by hurricanes.
Hiney, J. (2004). Taking a stand in the sand. Texas Shores 36(4):
6 January, 2009