Figure 3.12 Seamounts are more dense than sea water,and they increase local gravity causing a plumb line at the sea surface (arrows) to be deflected toward the seamount. Because the surface of an ocean at rest must be perpendicular to gravity, the sea surface and the local geoid must have a slight bulge as shown. Such bulges are easily measured by satellite altimeters. As a result, satellite altimeter data can be used to map the sea floor. Note, the bulge at the sea surface is greatly exaggerated, a two-kilometer high seamount would produce a bulge of approximately 10m.