Figure 5.13 Meridional transport of fresh water by the Atlantic from three surface-flux calculations: BR-Baumgartner and Reichel (1975); SBD-Schmitt et al., (1989); and IH-Isemer and Hasse's (1987) evaporation estimates combined with Dorman and Bourke's (1981) precipitation values. Also shown are direct measurements at 24° N by Hall and Bryden (1982) and 11° N by Friedrichs and Hall (1993). All are summed relative to an estimated Arctic southward export due to the Bering Strait through flow and the water budget of the Arctic itself. From Schmitt (1994).