16.1 Linear Theory of Ocean Surface Waves Looking out to sea from the shore, we can see waves on the sea surface. Looking carefully, we notice the waves are undulations of the sea surface with a height of around a meter, where height is the vertical distance between the bottom of a trough and the top of a nearby crest. The wavelength, which we might take to be the distance between prominent crests, is around 50m  100 m. Watching the waves for a few minutes, we notice that waveheight and wavelength are not constant. The heights vary randomly in time and space, and the statistical properties of the waves, such as the mean height averaged for a few hundred waves, change from day to day. These prominent offshore waves are generated by wind. Sometimes the local wind generates the waves, other times distant storms generate waves which ultimately reach the coast. For example, waves breaking on the Southern California coast on a summer day may come from vast storms offshore of Antarctica 10,000 km away. If we watch closely for a long time, we notice that sea level changes from hour to hour. Over a period of a day, sea level increases and decreases relative to a point on the shore by about a meter. The slow rise and fall of sea level is due to the tides, another type of wave on the sea surface. Tides have wavelengths of thousands of kilometers, and they are generated by the slow, very small changes in gravity due to the motion of the sun and the moon relative to Earth. In this chapter you will learn how to describe oceansurface waves quantitatively. In the next chapter we will describe tides and waves along coasts. 16.1 Linear Theory of Ocean Surface Waves Surface waves are inherently nonlinear: The solution of the equations of motion depends on the surface boundary conditions, but the surface boundary conditions are the waves we wish to calculate. How can we proceed? We begin by assuming that the amplitude of waves on the water surface is infinitely small so the surface is almost exactly a plane. To simplify the mathematics, we can also assume that the flow is 2dimensional with waves traveling in the xdirection. We also assume that the Coriolis force and viscosity can be neglected. If we retain rotation, we get Kelvin waves discussed in §14.2. With these assumptions, the seasurface elevation z of a wave traveling in the x direction is:
with
where ω is wave frequency in radians per second, f is the wave frequency in Hertz (Hz), k is wave number, T is wave period, L is wavelength, and where we assume, as stated above, that k a = O (0). The wave period T is the time it takes two successive wave crests or troughs to pass a fixed point. The wavelength L is the distance between two successive wave crests or troughs at a fixed time. Dispersion Relation
where d is the water depth and g is the acceleration of gravity. Two approximations are especially useful. 1. Deepwater approximation is valid if the water depth d is much greater than the wavelength L. In this case, d >> L, kd >> 1, and tanh (kd) = 1. 2. Shallowwater approximation is valid if the water depth is much less than a wavelength. In this case, d << L, kd << 1, and tanh (kd) = kd. For these two limits of water depth compared with wavelength the dispersion relation reduces to:
The stated limits for d/L give a dispersion relation accurate within 10%. Because many wave properties can be measured with accuracies of 510%, the approximations are useful for calculating wave properties. Later we will learn to calculate wave properties as the waves propagate from deep to shallow water. Phase Velocity
The direction of propagation is perpendicular to the wave crest and toward the positive x direction. The deepand shallowwater approximations for the dispersion relation give:
The approximations are accurate to about 5% for limits stated in (16.4, 16.5). In deep water, the phase speed depends on wavelength or wave frequency. Longer waves travel faster. Thus, deepwater waves are said to be dispersive. In shallow water, the phase speed is independent of the wave; it depends only on the depth of the water. Shallowwater waves are nondispersive. Group Velocity
The definition of group velocity in two dimensions is:
Using the approximations for the dispersion relation:
For oceansurface waves, the direction of propagation is perpendicular to the wave crests in the positive x direction. In the more general case of other types of waves, such as Kelvin and Rossby waves that we met in §14.2, the group velocity is not necessarily in the direction perpendicular to wave crests. Notice that a group of deepwater waves moves at half the phase speed of the waves making up the group. How can this happen? If we could watch closely a group of waves crossing the sea, we would see waves crests appear at the back of the wave train, move through the train, and disappear at the leading edge of the group. Each wave crest moves at twice the speed of the group. Do real ocean waves move in groups governed by the dispersion relation? Yes. Walter Munk and colleagues (1963) in a remarkable series of experiments in the 1960s showed that ocean waves propagating over great distances are dispersive, and that the dispersion could be used to track storms. They recorded waves for many days using an array of three pressure gauges just offshore of San Clemente Island, 60 miles due west of San Diego, California. Wave spectra were calculated for each day's data. (The concept of a spectra is discussed below.) From the spectra, the amplitudes and frequencies of the lowfrequency waves and the propagation direction of the waves were calculated. Finally, they plotted contours of wave energy on a frequencytime diagram (Figure 16.1).
To understand the figure, consider a distant storm that produces waves of many frequencies. The lowestfrequency waves (smallest w) travel the fastest (16.11), and they arrive before other, higherfrequency waves. The further away the storm, the longer the delay between arrivals of waves of different frequencies. The ridges of high wave energy seen in the Figure are produced by individual storm θ. The slope of the ridge gives the distance to the storm in degrees Δ along a great circle; and the phase information from the array gives the angle to the storm. The two angles give the storm's location relative to San Clemente. Thus waves arriving from 15 to 18 September produce a ridge indicating the storm was 115° away at an angle of 205° which is south of new Zealand near Antarctica. The locations of the storms producing the waves recorded from June through October 1959 were compared with the location of storms plotted on weather maps and in most cases the two agreed well. Wave Energy
where ρ_{}_{w} is water density, g is gravity, and the brackets denote a time or space average.
Significant WaveHeight
The concept of significant waveheight was developed during the World War II as part of a project to forecast ocean waveheights and periods. Wiegel (1964: p. 198) reports that work at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography showed
More recently, significant waveheight is calculated from measured wave displacement. If the sea contains a narrow range of wave frequencies, H_{1/3} is related to the standard deviation of seasurface displacement (NAS, 1963: 22; Hoffman and Karst, 1975)
where < ζ^{ 2} > ^{1/2} is the standard deviation of surface displacement. This relationship is much more useful, and it is now the accepted way to calculate waveheight from wave measurements.


Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M University Robert H. Stewart, stewart@ocean.tamu.edu All contents copyright © 2005 Robert H. Stewart, All rights reserved Updated on July 30, 2007 